Stainless Steel

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Stainless Steel
Stainless steel plate is often referred to as “corrosion-resistant steel” – it does not stain, corrode or rust as easily as normal carbon steel. It would however be misleading to say it is corrosion-proof. It differs significantly from standard carbon steel due to the amount of chromium present, which limits surface corrosion unlike carbon steel which will rust when exposed to air and any moisture in the atmosphere. Due to its anti-oxidation qualities, stainless steel is often a popular solution.

Where low maintenance and corrosion resistance is required, stainless steel plates are a natural choice and are used in a diverse range of applications from modern architecture for cladding or fascias, to the food hygiene industry due to its anti-bacterial qualities. Masteel supplies stainless steel in a wide variety of grades and aesthetic finishes. There are many options available – for example adding carbon during the forming process will make the stainless steel more durable and stronger too. We can supply stainless steel in coils, sheets, plates and bars and ship the material worldwide.

Example Industrial Uses:
■ Chemical and fuel tankers
■ Chemical and petrochemical plants
■ Food processing and pharmaceutical industries where clean environments are required
■ Construction, modern architecture

As a major stainless steel supplier, Masteel’s supply services include…
■ major stockholding
■ global shipping
■ variety of finishes available
■ heat resistant qualities when specified
■ quick turnaround
■ accurate ‘in-house’ cutting and profiling service
■ high quality steel from major European steel mills

Specifications & Grades:
■ Type 304 Stainless Steel
■ Type 304L Stainless Steel
■ Type 304H Stainless Steel
■ Type 316 Stainless Steel
■ Type 316L Stainless Steel
■ Type 316H Stainless Steel
■ Type 321 Stainless Steel
■ Type 347 Stainless Steel
■ Type 410 Stainless Steel
■ UNS32205 Duplex
■ UNS32750 SuperDuplex
■ UNS32760 SuperDuplex
■ 1.4057 Stainless Steel

Type 304 Stainless Steel

One of the most versatile and commonly used stainless steels on the market, Grade 304 stainless steel is the most standard used alloy of this type. Essentially, Grade 304 is an austenitic chromium alloy which is also known as an “18/8” stainless as the make-up of the steel is 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

The chromium content promotes the material’s considerable resistance to the effects of corrosion and oxidation. The stainless steel alloy resists most oxidizing acids and will withstand ordinary rusting though this does not mean that the steel will not tarnish over time. The steel needs to be cold worked to generate higher tensile strength. For stainless steel sections which are welded heavily, post-weld annealing may be necessary to provide maximum corrosive resistance.

Type 304 Stainless Steel has excellent welding and deep drawing characteristics – it is easy to fabricate, easy to clean and aesthetically pleasing to the eye.

Applications of Grade 304 Stainless Steel

The steel is common throughout industry particularly in food processing as the material is not susceptible to corrosion from acids found in common foodstuffs. As a consequence, such steel is ideal for items such as sinks, work surfaces, preparation areas and refrigerators. It is also a perfect material for use in the pharmaceutical industry for environments such as clean rooms.

Grade 304 can also be found in heat exchangers, chemical containers, pipelines and throughout the brewing industry. It can be used as a fabricated material where high temperature petroleum gases or steam production gases are stored such as pressure vessels. It can even be found extensively in the construction industry where the material is used for cosmetic purposes such as a building fascias.

304 & 304L plate and pipes have similar properties and in certain cases are stocked with Dual Certification, where it is concluded that each item has properties and a composition which comply with both steel types. Grade 304H cannot be included in this equation due to the steel’s higher carbon content which is intended for use in elevated temperature applications.

Mechanical Properties

DESCRIPTION TYPE 304
Proof Stress 0.2% (MPa) 205
Tensile strength (MPa) 515
Elongation A5 (%) 40
Hardness HB: 201
HRB: 92

Chemical Composition

UNS No S30400
EN 1.4301
AISI 304
Carbon (C) 0.07
Silicon (Si) 0.75
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Phosphorus (P) 0.045
Sulphur (S) 0.030
Chromium (Cr) 17.50 – 19.50
Molybdenum (Mo)
Nickel (Ni) 8.00 – 10.50
Nitrogen (N) 0.10


Type 304L Stainless Steel

Type 304L is a lower carbon variant of Grade 304 – the steel can be welded without the resulting issue of carbon precipitation (precipitation of chromium carbide as heat is applied during the welding process which depletes the chromium element of the steel thus reducing its anti-corrosive/oxidation effectiveness).

As a result, Type 304L stainless steel is a sort after material for use in severely corrosive conditions. Weld annealing is only necessary in applications where stress loads are excessive.

This steel Grade is found in a variety of commercial sectors, particularly in the chemical industry.

Benefits of using 304L Stainless Steel

  • Low carbon content eliminates carbon precipitation in the welding process
  • Can be used in severe corrosive environments
  • Weld annealing only required in high stress applications
  • Very similar to Type 304

304 & 304L plate and pipes have similar properties and in certain cases are stocked with Dual Certification, where it is concluded that each item has properties and a composition which comply with both steel types. Grade 304H cannot be included in this equation due to the steel’s higher carbon content which is intended for use in elevated temperature applications.

Mechanical Properties of 304L

DESCRIPTION TYPE 304L
Proof Stress 0.2% (MPa) 170
Tensile strength (MPa) 485
Elongation A5 (%) 40
Hardness HB: 201
HRB: 92

Chemical Composition of 304L

UNS No S30403
EN 1.4301
AISI 304
Carbon (C) 0.03
Silicon (Si) 0.75
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Phosphorus (P) 0.045
Sulphur (S)

UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel

Duplex stainless is a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite (50/50) which has improved strength over ferritic and austenitic steel grades with similar corrosion resistance qualities.

One of the main attractions of duplex stainless steel is cost – due to the materials increased yield strength it is often possible to reduce the thickness of material making it much cheaper than a comparative austenitic stainless steel grade.

Also Duplex steel has a lower alloy content reduces production costs. Certainly cost and weight savings without loss of performance is an attractive proposition to purchasers.

Benefits of using UNS32205 Duplex Stainless Steel

  • Corrosion resistance much better than that of Type 316
  • Greater tensile and yield strength
  • Good ductility and toughness though not as good as austenitic grades
  • Good stress corrosion cracking resistance (SSC)
  • Opportunity for purchases to reduce their material costs without compromising on quality

Mechanical Properties of S32205

DESCRIPTION DUPLEX 2205
Proof Stress 0.2% (MPa) 450
Tensile strength (MPa) 620
Elongation A5 (%) 20
Hardness HB: 293
HRB: 96 (according to Rockwell C Scale)

Chemical Composition of S32205

UNS No S32205
EN 1.4462
AISI 2205
Carbon (C) 0.030
Silicon (Si) 1.00
Manganese (Mn) 2.00
Phosphorus (P) 0.030
Sulphur (S) 0.020
Chromium (Cr) 22.0/23.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 3.0/3.5
Nickel (Ni) 4.5/6.5
Nitrogen (N) 0.14/0.20



UNS S32750 SuperDuplex Stainless Steel

SuperDuplex stainless like Duplex, is a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite (50/50) which has improved strength over ferritic and austenitic steel grades. The main difference is that Superduplex has a higher Molybdenum and Chromium content which gives the material greater corrosion resistance.

SuperDuplex has the same benefits as its counterpart – it has lower production costs when compared with similar ferritic and austenitic grades and due to the materials increased tensile and yield strength, in many cases this gives the purchaser the welcomed option of purchasing smaller thicknesses without the need to compromise on quality and performance.

Benefits of UNS32750 SuperDuplex Stainless Steel

  • Improved corrosion resistance in comparison to Duplex
  • Greater tensile and yield strength
  • Good ductility and toughness
  • Good stress corrosion cracking resistance (SSC)
  • Opportunity for purchases to reduce their material costs without compromising on quality

Applications

SuperDuplex is used in the oil and gas industry, on offshore platforms, in heat exchangers, chemical processing equipment pressure vessels and boilers.

About UNS32750

2507 is the most common SuperDuplex alloy which contains 24% chromium and a minimum of 3% molybdenum. Please refer to the chemical composition and mechanic properties tables below. For information on Duplex alloy please click here.

Mechanical Properties of S32750

DESCRIPTION DUPLEX 2205
Proof Stress 0.2% (MPa) 450
Tensile strength (MPa) 620
Elongation A5 (%) 20
Hardness HB: 293
HRB: 96 (according to Rockwell C Scale)

Chemical Composition of S32750

UNS No S32750
EN 1.4410
AISI 2507
Carbon (C) 0.030
Silicon (Si) 0.80
Manganese (Mn) 1.20

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